The PhD candidate by research is supervised by a lecturer (or a panel of lecturers) from the Graduate Faculty member. The directed research work introduces candidates to the processes by which new knowledge is developed and applied accordingly. In the case of panel supervision, co-supervisors may come from the industry. The academic progress of a candidate is assessed through a research progress report submitted at the end of each semester. The degree is awarded based on an examination (viva voce) of the thesis submitted by the candidate on completion of study.